Outcomes of Critical Time Intervention Case Management of Homeless Veterans After Psychiatric Hospitalization
The authors of this paper investigated the application of Critical Time Intervention for homeless mental ill veterans transitioning back into the community.
Objective: This study evaluated a modification of the critical time intervention (CTI) community case management model for homeless veterans with mental illness who were leaving Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) inpatient care. CTI offers time-limited intensive case management designed to negotiate transitions from institutional settings to community living.
Methods: CTI was implemented at eight VA medical centers through a training program that used primarily teleconference-based case review. A comparison cohort (phase 1) of 278 participants was recruited before CTI was implemented, and a treatment cohort (phase 2) of 206 participants was recruited after implementation and offered CTI. Mixed-regression models were used to compare outcomes in phase 1 and phase 2 and controlled for baseline differences between participants in the two phases.
Results: Measures of client service delivery show that CTI was successfully implemented at most sites. Phase 1 veterans had a better work history and more drug use at baseline than phase 2 clients had. Controlling for these differences, veterans in phase 2 on average had 19% more days housed in each 90-day reporting period over the one-year follow-up (p<.002) and 14% fewer days in institutional settings (p=.041). Veterans in phase 2 also had 19% lower Addiction Severity Index (ASI) alcohol use scores (p<.001), 14% lower ASI drug use scores (p=.003), and 8% lower ASI psychiatric problem scores (p=.001).
Conclusions: A sustained training program can be used to implement CTI in systems that have little past experience with this approach and can yield improved housing and mental health outcomes. (Authors)
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