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Every year, an estimated 575,000 to 1.6 million unaccompanied youth between ages 12 to 17 experience homelessness in the United States (1). It is estimated that between 20% and 40% of youth experiencing homelessness identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, intersex, or two-spirit (LGBTQI2-S) (2). These statistics can be sobering, especially when we begin to imagine a young person in our own lives facing the elevated risk factors of LGBTQI2-S youth experimenting homelessness, such as drug use, violence, sex work, mental health issues, and suicide.
In shelters, sexual and gender minority youth may be exposed to homophobic attitudes among staff and discrimination and harassment from their peers (3). Hostile shelter situations lead many LGBT youth to life on the streets. Once on the street, youth who identify as LGBT are three times more likely to engage in “survival sex,” exchanging sex for anything needed than their heterosexual peers (4). The literature also points to the extreme vulnerability of youth identifying as transgender. They appear to be at much greater risk for exploitation, drug abuse, survival sex, and HIV (5).
Given the lack of specialized services available to this population, SAMHSA’s Homelessness Resource Center (HRC) embarked on a listening tour of programs serving LGBTQI2-S youth experiencing homelessness. While there are a host of valuable resources outlining promising practices for working with sexual and gender minority youth, SAMHSA’s HRC wanted to explore the practical ways programs are implementing strategies and best practices to serve these vulnerable youth. To view existing resources on serving this population, visit HRC’s Topic Page on
. We found that successful programs create adaptive, flexible solutions to their specific challenges.
This resource package highlights key findings of the listening tour. Click the links below, or review the package contents below, to learn more about the tour, lessons learned, and steps to improve services at your agency.
Develop Trusting Relationships by Fostering a Strengths-Based Approach:
The first lesson learned is that creating an environment of acceptance and respect among providers and peers can help improve a youth’s self-esteem. Negative experiences can be transformed into strengths.
Develop Culturally Competent Staff:
Youth who identify as LGBTQI2-S and experience homelessness may face discrimination and misunderstanding when accessing services. Hiring the right staff and providing cultural and linguistic competence training can help improve service delivery.
Sexual and gender minority youth provide an invaluable perspective about their service needs and preferences, and can act as effective ambassadors to their peers.
Design Responsive Services Interventions:
The complex and unique needs of sexual and gender minority youth demand flexible, tailored programming. These can include adapted housing models, employment training, and safe and accepting environments.
Develop Community Partnerships:
Connecting with agencies dedicated to LGBTQI2-S issues or homelessness issues can help provide positive role models and alternative safe spaces to LGBTQI2-S youth experiencing homelessness. Partnerships can also help providers with outreach.
Expand Public Awareness:
Providing education about LGBTQI2-S youth and homelessness can help reduce stigma within communities.
A Story of Change: Youth on Fire:
Gain a better understanding of the process of organizational change by examining one program’s success story.
Best-Practices for Serving LGBTQI2-S Youth: Existing Resources:
Explore several existing documents recommending best practices for serving LGBTQI2-S youth.
Listening Tour Programs:
Learn about each of the programs SAMHSA’s HRC selected for the Listening Tour. Programs exhibit geographic diversity and programmatic focus. They include:
Youth on Fire, Cambridge, MA
Larkin Street Youth Services, San Francisco, CA
Outside In, Portland, OR
The Ruth Ellis Center, Detroit, MI
UCAN Host Home Program, Chicago, IL
The Drop-In Center at Tulane University, New Orleans, LA
Programs Serving LGBTQI2-S Youth:
Click here for a list of programs across the country serving youth who are LGBTQI2-S and homeless.
Findings from the tour can also be found in the draft report,
“Learning From the Field: Programs Serving Youth who are LGBTQI2-S and Experiencing Homelessness.”
If you have comments for SAMHSA’s Homelessness Resource Center about how to improve the Listening Tour report or would like targeted training about improving cultural competency in your agency, contact Laura Winn:
(1) Ray, N. (2006). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: An epidemic of homelessness. New York: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute and the National Coalition for the Homeless
(2) Robertson, M.J. & Toro, P.A. (1998). Homeless youth: Research, intervention, and policy. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 8, 2010, from http://aspe.hhs.gov/progsys/homeless/symposium/3-Youth.htm. Estimates that include young people age 18 to 24 suggest that 2 million youth experience homelessness. See National Alliance to End Homelessness. (2009). Ending Youth Homelessness Before It Begins: Prevention and Early Intervention Services for Older Adolescents. Washington, D.C.: National Alliance to End Homelessness.
(3) Ray, N. (2006). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: An epidemic of homelessness. New York: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute and the National Coalition for the Homeless.
(4) Van Leeuwen, J.M., Boyle, S., Salomonsen-Sautel, S., Baker, D.N., Garcia, J.T., Ho.man, A. & Hopfer, C.J. (2006). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual homeless youth: An eight-city public health perspective. Child Welfare, 85(2), 151-170.
(5) Ryan, C. LGBT youth: Health concerns, services and care. Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs, 2003, 20(2):137-158.
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Homelessness Resource Center encourages discussion about the future of homelessness services in America. We invite your participation to ensure that a broad range of providers serving those experiencing homelessness are represented.
You will encounter opinions and perspectives from varied sources. These may not reflect the views of Homelessness Resource Center, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the Institute on Homelessness and Trauma or any other partner organization.
Be Respectful: We welcome your participation, but any comments that contain vulgar or offensive language, personal attacks, are wildly off-topic or otherwise inappropriate will be removed immediately and the offending party risks losing the ability to participate.
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